year 3, Issue 2 (Fall & Winter 2018)                   CIAUJ 2018, 3(2): 83-95 | Back to browse issues page


XML Persian Abstract Print


Download citation:
BibTeX | RIS | EndNote | Medlars | ProCite | Reference Manager | RefWorks
Send citation to:

Kheirjoo sadat H, Feizi M, Vasiq B. The Impact of the Sunni and Shiite Doctrines on the Construction of Ilkhanid Tombs. CIAUJ. 2018; 3 (2) :83-95
URL: http://firooze-islam.ir/article-1-159-en.html
1- Jundi Shapur University of Technology
2- Jundi Shapur University of Technology , behzad_vasiq@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (564 Views)
The history of Iranian architecture has changed in line with changes in religion, and rulers’ ethnic affiliations and lifestyles. After the arrival of Islam to Iran, two different faiths namely the Shiite and Sunni began to grow, each one periodically ruling over parts of the country. The many differences between the Shiite and Sunni intellectual and theoretical foundations are reflected in art and architecture of the two sects as well. The discrepancies are mainly rooted in the fun­damental difference existing in their respective reli­gious jurisprudence.
Needless to say, religious sources do not make ex­plicit mention of architectural orders. However, the differences can be recognized by examining buildings and their correspondence to the general principles of the given religion.
Many researches have focused on such structures as mosques and others, but in this article, a compari­son has been made between the positions of these two sects on death and related laws.
In this article, the term “Iran” denotes the geo­graphical area of the historical Greater Iran, which includes parts of modern-day Turkey, central Asia, Afghanistan, Iraq, and the Caspian littorals. It should also be noted that where Sufism is mentioned, its affiliation with Shiite and Sunni is also mentioned. The introduced buildings were also selected based on the availability of evidence and documents.
One of the most important points in the design of religious buildings is the adherence to the religious principles and edicts insinuated in the structure of the religion, and construction of tombs and mausoleums is no exception. Islamic tombs must abide by the reli­gious tenets at the same time that they venerate the buried deceased who deserves respect for religion or other grounds.
Incessant vagaries of the 7th-8th A.H./13th-14 AD centuries in Iran were associated with changes in the state religion, and its impacts on architectural forms are obvious. The ideological differences between the Shitte and Sunni doctrines gave rise to two types of tomb architecture. Tombs, as it were, represented the eternal resting place of the deceased and a medium to communicate his and the society’s thoughts and beliefs. The structures can thus be studies as some benchmarks to measure to what extent the architec­ture was inspired by the socio-political, ideology and religion that dominated the society in a certain peri­od. Individual affiliated with both Shiite and Sunni sects alternatively sized political power and always tried to use the opportunity to the best advantage to propagate their respective ideologies. The Ilkhanid period is particularly important both because the two sects possessed the required authority to express and promote their doctrines and we today have standing instances of mausoleums attributed to both sects. Therefore, here we study a representative sample of these religious constructions in an attempt to investi­gate the Shiite and Sunni positions on and the reflec­tion of these positions in these structures.
The major research questions are as follows:
  • What is the position of the theoretical and ideo­logical foundations of the Shiite and Sunni doc­trines on tomb architecture?
  • What are the similarities and dissimilarities be­tween the tomb architecture in the two sects?
  • How were the status of tomb construction and observance of Islamic tenets reflected in tomb architectures of the two sects?
Full-Text [PDF 5483 kb]   (319 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research |

References
1. Quran
2. Abdal Zahedi, Sheikh Hossein. 1964. Selselah-al-Nasb-I Safavid. Berlin: Iranshahr publications [in Persian].
3. Alborz, Mehrnaz. 2016. Soltaniyeh dome: a combination of art and architecture of Iran. https://blog.safarme.com/culture-and-art/soltaniyeh-dome-a-combination-of-art-and-architecture-of-iran (accessed August 30, 2017) [in Persian].
4. Blair, Sheila. 1986. The Ilkhanid shrine complex at Natanz. Translated by Vali-Allah Kavosi. 2008. Tehran: Farhangestan-I Honar [in Persian].
5. Bukhari, Abū 'Abd Allāh Muhammad ibn Ismāīl. 256 AH. Sahih al-Bukhari. Translated by Abd-al-Ali Nour Ahrari. Mashhad: Sheikh-al-Eslam Ahmad Jam publications [in Arabic and Persian].
6. Dehkhoda, Ali Akbar. 1994. Dehkhoda Dictionary. Tehran: Tehran University publications [in Persian].
7. Ganjnameh: Imamzadeh-ha va Maghbare-ha. 2010. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University press [in Persian].
8. Gheysari, E. 1982. Torbat-e-Jam and Taybad. Journal of Farhange-I Iran Zamin 25: 64‒97 [in Persian].
9. Golmaghanizadeh, Malakeh and Hasan Yousefi, 2005. Archeology and Art History of Sheikh Safi al-Din Ardabili. Ardabil: Nik Amouz publications [in Persian].
10. Golombek, L. and B., Shirazi. 1985. Courses on the historical complex of Torbat-e Sheikh Jam. Journal of Athar 10-11: 16‒57 [in Persian].
11. Hamzenejad, M. 2011. Conceptual and applied principles in designing religious buildings in Shia attitude. Ph.D. Diss. Iran University of Science and Technology [in Persian].
12. Hattstein, Markus and Peter Delius. 2011. Islam: Art and Architecture. Translated by Akram Gheytasi. 2012. Tehran: Soureh-I Mehr publications [in Persian].
13. Hillenbrand, Robert. 2004. Islamic Architecture. Translated by Iraj Etesam. 1998. Tehran: Information and Communication Technology Organization of Tehran Municipality [in Persian].
14. Hoseyny, H. 2010. Introducing the Sufism tomb construction style in Azerbaijan. Honar-ha-ye-Ziba Memari va Sahrsazi 43(2): 57‒68 [in Persian].
15. Hoseyny, H. 2009. A survey in the process of construction of tomb complexes in the Islamic architecture of Iran according Abusaeed Abilkheir ideas. Honar-ha-ye-Ziba Memari va Sahrsazi 38(1): 15‒23 [in Persian].
16. Hurr Al-Amili, Muhammad ibn al-Hasan. 1414. Wasā'il al-Shīʿa. Qom: Al-al-Beyt Aleih-al-Salām institute [in Persian].
17. Ibn al-Hajjaj N., Muslim. 2010. Sahih Muslim. Translated by Abdolghader Torshabi. Zahedan: Haramein publications [in Persian].
18. Ibn Qudāmah, Abū Muḥammad. 2004. Al-Mughnī. Beirut: Bayt al-Afkār al-Dawliyyah [in Arabic].
19. Jaame-al-Ahadis-al-shia software. 2014. Computer Science Center of Islamic Sciences [in Persian].
20. Kaempfer, Engelbert. 1984. Kaempfer's travelogue. Translated by Keykavous Jahandari. 1984. Tehran: Kharazmi publications [in Persian].
21. Kiani, Mohammad Y. 1995. History of Iranian Architectural Art during the Islamic Period. Tehran: Samt publications [in Persian].
22. Kosari, M. 2011. Shia art in Islam. Sociological Journal of Art and Literature 1: 7‒36 [in Persian].
23. Kulayni, Muhammad ibn Ya'qub, Kitab al-Kafi. Isfahan: Digital Publishing Center of Qeemieh Computer Research Center. [in Persian].
24. Makarem Shirazi, Naser. 2014. Prevent mosque from being built on graves. http://makarem.ir/main.aspx?lid=0&mid=325970&typeinfo=42&catid=30206 (accessed August 30, 2017) [in Persian].
25. Noghrekar, A. H. and M. Hamzenejad and M. R. Ataei. 2013. Physical and conceptual modeling of the connection between the mosque and the tomb in Islamic shrines. Collected articles in the wisdom of Islamic art and architecture. Tehran: Iran University of Science and Technology [in Persian].
26. Olearius, Adam. 1669. Adam Olearius's travelogue. Translated by Hossein Kordbacheh. 2000. Tehran: Hirmand publications [in Persian].
27. Pirnia, Karim. 2003. Stylistics of Iranian Architecture. Tehran: Nashr-I Memar publication [in Persian].
28. Pirnia, Karim. 2013. Introducation to Islamic Architecture of Iran. Tehran: Nashr-I Soroush publication [in Persian].
29. Qummi, Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn Babawaih. 1413. Man la yahduruhu al-Faqih. Qom: Eslami publications [in Persian].
30. Sābiq, al-Sayyid. 1986. Fegh-al-Sonnat. Translated by Mahmoud Ebrahimi. 2014. Piranshahr: Aras publications [in Persian].
31. Sajadi, Jafar. 1991. Dictionary of mystical terms and expressions. Tehran: Tahouri publications [in Persian].
32. Shaker, Muhammad K. 2005. Spirituality and Prayer in Shiite Islam. South West Wales: Religious experience Centre.
33. Shaykh Tusi. 1401. Tahdhib al-Ahkam. Beirut: Dar-al- Taāref [in Arabic].
34. Siyahkouhian, h. 2012. The Effect of Mysticism on Iranian Architecture with Emphasis on Soltanieh Dome Decorations. Journal of Erfan-I Eslami 34 [in Persian].
35. Spuler, Bertold. 1972. The Mongol in Iran. Traslated by Mahmoud M. Aftab. 1972. Tehran: Bungāh-I Tarjumah va Nashr-I Kitāb publications [in Persian].

Add your comments about this article : Your username or Email:
CAPTCHA code

Send email to the article author


© 2018 All Rights Reserved | Culture of Islamic Architecture and Urbanism Journal

Designed & Developed by : Yektaweb